Underwater Field Guide to Ross Island & McMurdo Sound, Antarctica
Diving Under Antarctic Ice

Photos: Steve Alexander; Bill Baker; Isidro Bosch; Sam Bowser (S043 Archives) ; Peter Brueggeman; Kathleen Conlan (courtesy, Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa/Canada) ; Paul Cziko; Paul Dayton; Guenter Foersterra; Bjørn Gulliksen (UWPhoto ANS) ; Vreni Haeussermann; Shawn Harper; Luke Hunt; Henry Kaiser; Uwe Kils; Stacy Kim/ROV SCINI; Jim Mastro; Bruce A. Miller; Eva Philipp; Rob Robbins; Robert Sanders (Sam Bowser/S043 Archives) ; Dirk Schories; M Dale Stokes.
Principal Photographer & Project Initiator: Norbert Wu.
Text & Web Site: Peter Brueggeman

PORIFERA - CALCAREA
calcareous sponges
PORIFERA - DEMOSPONGIAE
demosponges
PORIFERA - HEXACTINELLIDA
glass sponges
CNIDARIA - ANTHOZOA
anemones, soft coral
CNIDARIA - HYDROZOA
medusae, siphonophores, hydroids
CNIDARIA - SCYPHOZOA
jellyfish
CTENOPHORA
comb jellies, ctenophores
NEMERTINA
proboscis worms
BRACHIOPODA
brachiopods, lamp shells
ECTOPROCTA
bryozoans
ANNELIDA
polychaetes, bristle worms, featherduster worms, leeches
MOLLUSCA - GASTROPODA - OPISTHOBRANCHIA
nudibranchs, pteropods
MOLLUSCA - GASTROPODA - OTHER
gastropods
MOLLUSCA - OTHER
bivalves, chitons, octopus
ECHINODERMATA - ASTEROIDEA
seastars
ECHINODERMATA - OTHER
urchins, brittle stars, sea cucumbers, crinoids
ARTHROPODA - AMPHIPODA
amphipods
ARTHROPODA - ISOPODA
isopods
ARTHROPODA - CHELICERATA
sea spiders
ARTHROPODA - OTHER
copepods, krill, ostracods, mysids, tanaids, barnacles, shrimp, etc.
CHORDATA - TUNICATA
ascidians, tunicates
CHORDATA - FISH
fish
CHORDATA - BIRDS, MAMMALS
penguins, marine mammals
PROTOCTISTA
foraminiferans, amoeba, algae, diatoms
First published in April 1998. Text ©Peter Brueggeman. DISCLAIMER: This Field Guide aims to facilitate underwater/topside field identification from visual characters. Most organisms were identified from photographs with no specimen collection, so these identifications are to the taxonomic level possible from photographs.

The National Science Foundation's Office of Polar Programs sponsored Norbert Wu on an Artist's and Writer's Grant and this Field Guide is a direct result of that sponsorship and Norbert Wu's efforts.
Click here for a look at other work of Norbert Wu.
Photographs © copyrighted, and may not be used in any form without the express written permission of the photographer whose name is overlaid on an image. Contact individual photographers to request permission; do not contact Peter Brueggeman, who is not authorized to grant permission for use of these photographers' images. Norbert Wu does not grant permission for uncompensated use of his photos under any circumstances whatsoever; see www.norbertwu.com for information.

Photographs © Steve Alexander, Isidro Bosch, Sam Bowser (S043 Archives), Peter Brueggeman, Kathleen Conlan (courtesy, Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa/Canada), Paul Cziko, Paul Dayton, Guenter Foersterra, Bjørn Gulliksen, Vreni Haeussermann, Shawn Harper, Henry Kaiser, Uwe Kils, Stacy Kim, Jim Mastro, Bruce A. Miller, Eva Philipp, Rob Robbins, Robert Sanders (Sam Bowser/S043 Archives), Dirk Schories. M Dale Stokes, Norbert Wu.

Contact Peter Brueggeman at peterbman(at)gmail.com. ID-useful images are gratefully reviewed for incorporation into this Field Guide.
Other Antarctic Marine Guides / Resources




Click to see Smithsonian Antarctic Invertebrates




Click to see SCAR MarBIN Register of Antarctic Marine Species




Click to see FAO Species Identification Sheets for Fishery Purposes. Southern Ocean... Volume 1

Click to see FAO Species Identification Sheets for Fishery Purposes. Southern Ocean... Volume 2




Click to see David Cothran's Antarctic (Peninsula) Underwater Field Guide




Click to see Dirk Schories' Antarctic (Peninsula) Guia Marina



Click to see SCAR Antarctic Field Guides
Norbert Wu's NSF-sponsored Antarctic Diving Project

Click to see a Thematic Photo Gallery resulting from this project.

Click to read about Scuba Diving on this project.

Click to read Diver Journals associated with this project.
Norbert Wu's book Under Antarctic Ice is available Click to see the Sponsors & Supporters contributing to this project.